Skip to main content

TOSEC: The Old School Emulation Center

The Old School Emulation Center (TOSEC) is a retrocomputing initiative dedicated to the cataloging and preservation of software, firmware and resources for microcomputers, minicomputers and video game consoles. The main goal of the project is to catalog and audit various kinds of software and firmware images for these systems.

As of release 2012-09-15, TOSEC catalogs over 200 unique computing platforms and continues to grow. As of this time the project had identified and cataloged 466,396 different software images/sets, consisting of over 3.60TB of software, firmware and resources.

The initiative was founded on 18 January 2000, with the first official TOSEC website going live 18 August 2000, by a Dutch retrocomputing enthusiast using the pseudonym "Grendel". While the original founder of TOSEC has since ceased to have an involvement in the initiative, a dedicated team of volunteers continue to expand and contribute to the project.

The goal of the TOSEC project is to maintain a database of all software and firmware images for all microcomputers, minicomputers and video game consoles. In addition to this, the project also catalogs other computing and gaming resources such as software and hardware manuals, magazine scans and computing catalogs.

Using this data, TOSEC can provide quality assurance and auditing tools for cataloging and validating software images (such as ROM chip images, CD images and floppy disk images etc.) and computing resources (such as manuals and magazines).

The TOSEC database contains detailed information on images of hundreds of thousands of ROMs, EEPROMs, optical discs, magnetic disks, magnetic tapes, document scans, and other sundry media and individual files.

To understand the conventions of the TOSEC filenames, please read the TOSEC Naming Standards Document. (Current version: 2011-08-27)

This mirror of TOSEC material is being maintained by Jason Scott. The TOSEC main site is located at

 Platform Name Revision Browse Collection
Acorn Electron2012-04-23BROWSE
Acorn Archimedes2012-04-23BROWSE
Amiga CD322012-04-23BROWSE
Amiga CDTV2012-04-23BROWSE
Amstrad GX40002012-04-23BROWSE
Apple I2012-04-23BROWSE
Apple II2012-04-23BROWSE
Apple IIgs2012-04-23BROWSE
Apple III2012-04-23BROWSE
Apple Lisa2012-04-23BROWSE
Applied Technology Micro Bee2012-04-23BROWSE
Amstrad CPC2012-04-23BROWSE
Atari 8-bit Series2012-04-23BROWSE
Atari ST2012-04-23BROWSE
Bally Professional Arcade & Astrocade2012-04-23BROWSE
Bandai Wonderswan2012-04-23BROWSE
Bandai Wonderswan Color2012-04-23BROWSE
Camputers Lynx2012-04-23BROWSE
Coleco ADAM2012-04-23BROWSE
Commodore Amiga2012-04-10BROWSE
Commodore C-1282012-04-10BROWSE
Commodore C16, C116 & Plus-42012-04-10BROWSE
Commodore C-642012-04-23BROWSE
Commodore C-652012-04-23BROWSE
Commodore MAX2012-04-23BROWSE
Commodore PET2012-04-23BROWSE
Commodore VIC-202012-04-23BROWSE
DEC PDP-122012-04-23BROWSE
Dragon Data Dragon2012-04-23BROWSE
Elektronika BK-001-4112012-04-23BROWSE
Emerson Arcadia 20012012-04-23BROWSE
Epoch Super Cassette Vision2012-04-23BROWSE
ETL Mark IV2012-04-23BROWSE
Front Fareast Magic Drive2012-04-23BROWSE
Galaksija Galaksija2012-04-23BROWSE
IBM PC Compatibles2012-04-23BROWSE
Interact Family Computer2012-04-23BROWSE
Kaypro II2012-04-23BROWSE
Luxor ABC 8002012-04-23BROWSE
Magnavox Odyssey 22012-04-23BROWSE
Mattel Aquarius2012-04-23BROWSE
MSX MSX2+2012-04-23BROWSE
NEC PC 82012012-04-23BROWSE
NEC PC-Engine/TurboGrafx 162012-04-23BROWSE
NEC SuperGrafx2012-04-23BROWSE
NCR Decision Mate V2012-04-23BROWSE
OpenPandora Pandora2012-04-23BROWSE
Pel Varazdin Orao2012-04-23BROWSE
Robotron Z10132012-04-23BROWSE
Processor Technology SOL-202012-04-23BROWSE
Sega 32x2012-04-13BROWSE
Sega Game Gear2012-04-13BROWSE
Sega Mark III/Master System2012-04-13BROWSE
Sega Pico2012-04-13BROWSE
Sega Super Control Station2012-04-23BROWSE
Sega Visual Memory Unit2012-04-23BROWSE
Sharp MZ-7002012-04-23BROWSE
Sinclair ZX812012-04-23BROWSE
Sinclair ZX Spectrum2012-04-23BROWSE
Tandy TRS-80 Color Computer2012-04-23BROWSE
University of Cambridge EDSAC2012-04-23BROWSE
University of Tokyo PC-12012-04-23BROWSE
VTech Laser 3102012-04-23BROWSE
Wang VS2012-04-23BROWSE
Watara Supervision2012-04-23BROWSE

The following systems are in the process of being described/prettified, but can be accessed currently.

 Platform Name Revision Browse Collection
Acorn BBC2012-04-23BROWSE
Altos Computer Systems ACS-80002012-04-23BROWSE
Altos Computer Systems Series 52012-04-23BROWSE
Bondwell Model 22012-04-23BROWSE
Casio CFX-98502012-04-23BROWSE
Creatronic Mega Duck & Cougar Boy2012-04-23BROWSE
Cybiko Cybiko2012-04-23BROWSE
Cyiko Xtreme2012-04-23BROWSE
DEC PDP-102012-04-23BROWSE
DEC PDP-112012-04-23BROWSE
DEC PDP-12012-04-23BROWSE
DEC PDP-72012-04-23BROWSE
DEC PDP-82012-04-23BROWSE
DEC PDP-92012-04-23BROWSE
Elektronika BK-0010-0011M2012-04-23BROWSE
Elektronska Industrija Nis PECOM 32 & 642012-04-23BROWSE
Enterprise 64 and 1282012-04-23BROWSE
Entex Adventure Vision2012-04-23BROWSE
ETL Mark II2012-04-23BROWSE
ETL Mark IV A2012-04-23BROWSE
Exelvision Exeltel2012-04-23BROWSE
Exelvision EXL 1002012-04-23BROWSE
Exidy Sorcerer2012-04-23BROWSE
Fairchild VES and Channel F2012-04-23BROWSE
Fujitsu FM Towns2012-04-23BROWSE
Fuji Photo Film FUJIC2012-04-23BROWSE
Funtech Super Acan2012-04-23BROWSE
Galaksija Galaksija Plus2012-04-23BROWSE
GCE Vectrex2012-04-23BROWSE
Hewlett-Packard HP-482012-04-23BROWSE
Hewlett-Packard HP-492012-04-23BROWSE
HomeLab Brailab2012-04-23BROWSE
HomeLab HomeLab2012-04-23BROWSE
Jupiter Cantab Jupiter Ace2012-04-23BROWSE
Luxor ABC 802012-04-23BROWSE
Luxor Video Entertainment System2012-04-23BROWSE
Matra Hachette Alice 322012-04-23BROWSE
Matsushita National JR2012-04-23BROWSE
Mattel Intellivision2012-04-23BROWSE
Memotech MTX2012-04-23BROWSE
Microkey Primo2012-04-23BROWSE
MITS Altair 88002012-04-23BROWSE
MSX MSX22012-04-23BROWSE
MSX TurboR2012-04-23BROWSE
NASCOM 1 and 22012-04-23BROWSE
NEC PC 60012012-04-23BROWSE
NEC PC 80012012-04-23BROWSE
NEC PC 88012012-04-23BROWSE
NEC PC 88VA2012-04-23BROWSE
NEC PC 98012012-04-23BROWSE
NEC PC 98212012-04-23BROWSE
Osborne OSBORNE 1 & Executive2012-04-23BROWSE
Philips P20002012-04-23BROWSE
Philips Videopac+2012-04-23BROWSE
Pioneer Laseractive2012-04-23BROWSE
Radio-86RK Apogej BK-012012-04-23BROWSE
Radio-86RK Mikro-802012-04-23BROWSE
Radio-86RK Mikrosha2012-04-23BROWSE
Radio-86RK Partner-01-012012-04-23BROWSE
Radio 86RK2012-04-23BROWSE
Radio-86RK YuT-882012-04-23BROWSE
RCA Chip 82012-04-23BROWSE
RCA Studio 22012-04-23BROWSE
RCA Superchip2012-04-23BROWSE
Robotron KC Compact2012-04-23BROWSE
Robotron Z9001 & KC85 12012-04-23BROWSE
SABA Videoplay2012-04-23BROWSE
Sam Coupe2012-04-23BROWSE
Sega Computer 30002012-04-23BROWSE
Sega Game 10002012-04-23BROWSE
Sega Megadrive and Genesis2012-04-13BROWSE
Sharp X12012-04-23BROWSE
Sharp X680002012-04-23BROWSE
Sinclair QL2012-04-23BROWSE
SNK NeoGeo Pocket2012-04-23BROWSE
Sony Pocketstation2012-04-23BROWSE
Sord M52012-04-23BROWSE
Super Famicom and Super Entertainment System2012-04-14BROWSE
Tangerine Microtan 652012-04-23BROWSE
Tangerine Oric 1 and Atmos2012-04-23BROWSE
Tesla PMD 852012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments CC-402012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-732012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-802012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-812012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-822012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-832012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-852012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-862012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-892012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-922012-04-23BROWSE
Texas Instruments TI-99/4a2012-04-23BROWSE
Thomson M052012-04-23BROWSE
Thomson TO72012-04-23BROWSE
Thomson TO82012-04-23BROWSE
Tiger Game.Com2012-04-23BROWSE
Tomy Tutor and Pyuuta2012-04-23BROWSE
Tsukuda Original Othello Multivision2012-04-23BROWSE
Visual Technology Visual 10502012-04-23BROWSE
VTech Laser 2001 & CreatiVision2012-04-23BROWSE
VTech Laser 2002012-04-23BROWSE

The TOSEC development team releases information on their software classifications in the form of data (DAT) files on a regular basis. The last few releases are linked here, with additional sets kept on record indefinitely.

 Dataset Name Link to Dataset
TOSEC - DAT Pack - Complete (2001) (TOSEC-v2012-12-28) (December 2012)2012-12-28
TOSEC - DAT Pack - Complete (1996) (TOSEC-v2012-09-15) (September 2012)2012-09-15
Date Archived
******************************* The Old School Emulation Center 28/12/2012 Hello, and welcome to a brand new TOSEC release! Just a quick one before the end of the year, LOTS of new Commodore images added. Many thanks to the tireless efforts of Crashdisk, mai, Duncan Twain and new helpers AntiPontifex and IguanaC64. On the ISO side, I'm happy to report the NTSC-US Games DAT is now 100% complete and verified, due to the above and beyond efforts of Maddog, atreyu187 and all the boys at Dumpcast....
The ColecoVision is Coleco Industries' second generation home video game console, which was released in August 1982. The ColecoVision offered near-arcade-quality graphics and gaming style along with the means to expand the system's basic hardware. Released with a catalog of 12 launch titles, with an additional 10 games announced for 1982, approximately 145 titles in total were published as ROM cartridges for the system between 1982 and 1984. Coleco licensed Nintendo's Donkey Kong as the...
The Amiga is a family of personal computers sold by Commodore in the 1980s and 1990s. The first model was launched in 1985 as a high-end home computer and became popular for its graphical, audio and multi-tasking abilities. The Amiga provided a significant upgrade from 8-bit computers, such as the Commodore 64, and the platform quickly grew in popularity among computer enthusiasts. The best selling model, the Amiga 500, was introduced in 1987 and became the leading home computer of the late...
( 3 reviews )
The Old School Emulation Center (TOSEC) is a retrocomputing initiative dedicated to the cataloging and preservation of software, firmware and resources for arcade machines, microcomputers, minicomputers and video game consoles. The main goal of the project is to catalog and audit various kinds of software and firmware images for these systems. As of release 2013-04-13, TOSEC catalogs over 270 unique computing platforms and continues to grow. As of this time the project had identified and...
The Commodore 64, commonly called C64, C=64 (after the graphic logo on the case) or occasionally CBM 64 (for Commodore Business Machines), or VIC-64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International. Volume production started in the spring of 1982, with machines being released on to the market in August at a price of US$ 595. Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes (65,536 bytes) of RAM, and had favorable...
( 2 reviews )
The Atari ST was a home computer released by Atari Corporation in 1985. The "ST" officially stands for "Sixteen/Thirty Two", which referrs to the Motorola 68000's 16-bit external bus and 32-bit internals. Introduced for $800/$1000 (monochrome or color monitor), it sold into the early 1990s. Memory size ranged from 512k to 4mb. Heralded as Atari's flagship graphics machine, it competed against the Commodore Amiga and Acorn Archimedes, grabbing a significant foothold in the...
( 3 reviews )
( 1 reviews )
The Amiga CD32, styled "CD32" (code-named "Spellbound"), was the first 32-bit CD-ROM based video game console released in western Europe, Australia, Canada and Brazil. It was first announced at the Science Museum in London, United Kingdom on 16 July 1993, and was released in September of the same year. The CD32 is based on Commodore's Advanced Graphics Architecture chipset, and is of similar specification to the Amiga 1200 computer. Using 3rd-party devices, it is possible to...
( 1 reviews )
The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. The machine was named Spectrum by Sinclair to highlight the machine's color display, compared with the black-and-white of its predecessor, the ZX81. The Spectrum was ultimately released as eight different models, ranging from the entry level model with 16 kB RAM released in 1982 to the ZX Spectrum +3 with 128 kB RAM and built in floppy disk drive in 1987; together they sold in...
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. Alongside "microcomputer" and "home computer", the term "personal computer" was already in use before 1981. It was...
The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers manufactured from 1979 to 1992. All are based on the MOS Technology 6502 CPU and were the first home computers designed with custom coprocessor chips. Over the following decade several versions of the same basic design were released, including the original Atari 400 and 800 and their successors, the XL and XE series of computers. Overall, the Atari 8-bit computer line was a commercial success, selling two million units through its major...
The Apple II series (trademarked with square brackets as "Apple ][") is a set of 8-bit home computers, one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed primarily by Steve Wozniak, manufactured by Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) and introduced in 1977 with the original Apple II. In terms of ease of use, features and expandability the Apple II was a major technological advancement over its predecessor, the Apple I, a limited-production bare circuit board...
The Amstrad CPC (short for Colour Personal Computer) is a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad between 1984 and 1990. It was designed to compete in the mid-1980s home computer market dominated by the Commodore 64 and the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, where it successfully established itself primarily in the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and the German-speaking parts of Europe. The series spawned a total of six distinct models: The CPC464, CPC664, and CPC6128 were highly successful...
The Sega 32X was released year-end 1994 as an add-on component for the Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis game console. Designed to expand the lifespan of the aging Genesis console, the 32X sold poorly and was met with tepid market response, and discontinued in October 1995. It initially sold for $159. Installed in the Mega Drive/Genesis cartridge slot, 32X Game cartridges were then placed into the 32X expansion unit itself. Approximately thirty-five 32X Game cartridges were released. An additional...
The CDTV (an acronym for "Commodore Dynamic Total Vision", a backronym of an acronym for "Compact Disk Television", giving it a double meaning) was a multimedia platform developed by Commodore International and launched in 1991. On a technological level it was essentially a Commodore Amiga 500 home computer in a Hi-Fi style case with a single-speed CD-ROM drive. Commodore marketed the machine as an all-in-one home multimedia appliance rather than a computer. As such, it...
The VIC-20 (Germany: VC-20; Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer which was sold by Commodore Business Machines. The VIC-20 was announced in 1980, roughly three years after Commodore's first personal computer, the PET. The VIC-20 was the first computer of any description to sell one million units. The VIC-20 was intended to be more economical than the PET computer. It was equipped with only 5 kB of RAM (of this, only 3583 bytes were available to the BASIC programmer) and used the same MOS...
MSX was the name of a standardized home computer architecture, first announced by Microsoft in June 16, 1983, conceived by Kazuhiko Nishi, then Vice-president at Microsoft Japan and Director at ASCII Corporation. It is said that Microsoft led the project as an attempt to create unified standards among hardware makers. Despite Microsoft's involvement, the MSX-based machines were seldom seen in the United States, but were popular mostly in Japan, the Middle East, Brazil, the Soviet Union, the...
( 1 reviews )
The Master System (マスターシステム Masutā Shisutemu?), often called the Sega Master System or SMS, is a third-generation video game console that was manufactured and released by Sega in 1985 in Japan (as the Sega Mark III), 1986 in North America, 1987 in Europe and 1989 in Brazil. The original Master System could play both cartridges and the credit card-sized "Sega Cards," which retailed for cheaper prices than cartridges but had lower storage capacity. The Master System...
( 1 reviews )
The Radio Shack/Tandy Corporation TRS-80 Color Computer (nicknamed CoCo) was released in 1980, with subsequent hardware updates in 1983, and 1986. Despite its TRS-80 heritage, the TRS-80 Color Computer differed greatly from its predecessor with the implementation of a Motorola 6890E, rather than a Zilog Z80 processor. The more expensive Motorola processor set the TRS-80 Color Computer apart from the Apple II, Commodore, and Atari systems which were based on the MOS-6502 CPU. While lacking the...
( 1 reviews )
The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was the last 8-bit machine commercially released by Commodore Business Machines (CBM). Introduced in January 1985 at the CES in Las Vegas, it appeared three years after its predecessor, the bestselling Commodore 64. The C128 was a significantly expanded successor to the C64 and unlike the earlier Commodore Plus/4, nearly full compatibility with the C64 was retained, in both hardware and software. The new machine featured 128 kB of...
The Sega Game Gear launched October 1990 in Japan, and April 1991 in the rest of the world. At it's launch the Game Gear was the third commercially available color handheld console on the alongside NEC's TurboExpress and Atari's Lynx. Despite the availability of handheld versions of Sega's popular Sonic the Hedgehog series, the Game Gear met lukewarm reception in Sega's homeland of Japan. Battery life issues plagued the system as it only ran for approximately 4 hours on 6 AA batteries, compared...
The Apple IIGS (stylized as IIgs) is the fifth and most powerful model in the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer. The "GS" in the name stands for Graphics and Sound, referring to its enhanced multimedia capabilities, especially its state-of-the-art sound and music synthesis, which greatly surpassed previous models of the line and most contemporary machines like the Macintosh and IBM PC. The machine was a radical departure from any previous Apple II, with...
The Sinclair ZX81 was released 1981 in the UK and later in 1982 in a slightly modified form as the Timex Sinclair 1000 in the United States. Designed as a low-cost introduction to home computing, the ZX81 was designed to be small, simple, and cheap. In place of a dedicated monitor, the ZX81 was designed to output video to standard television set. Programs and data were loaded and saved from standard audio tape cassettes. The much-loathed pressure-sensitive membrane keyboard was a result of the...
NEC's PC Engine was released in 1987 in Japan, and later in 1989 in North America as the TurboGrafx-16 Entertainment SuperSystem. The first entry in the fourth generation of gaming, the system competed with the popular Sega Genesis/Mega Drive, and Super Famicom/Super Nintendo. The PC-Engine was notable for its unique HuCard (Hudson Card) format, which placed games on cards approximately the thickness, and slightly longer than, a credit card. The first system to have a CD-ROM peripheral, the...
TOSEC: TOSEC (2013-10-05 Update Collection - All Platforms) This is the 2013-10-05 collection of updated TOSEC-named images. Click here to browse the list of images.
( 2 reviews )
The Acorn Archimedes was Acorn Computers' first general purpose home computer to be based on their own ARM architecture. Using a RISC design with a 32-bit CPU, at its launch in June 1987, the Archimedes was stated as running at 4 MIPS, with a claim of 18 MIPS during tests. The name is commonly used to describe any of Acorn's contemporary designs based on the same architecture, even where Acorn did not include Archimedes in the official name. The first models were released in June 1987, as the...
The Commodore 16 was a home computer made by Commodore with a 6502-compatible 8501 CPU, released in 1984. It was intended to be an entry-level computer to replace the VIC-20 and it often sold for 99 USD. A cost-reduced version, the Commodore 116, was sold only in Europe. The C16 was intended to compete with other sub-$100 computers from Timex Corporation, Mattel, and Texas Instruments (TI). Timex's and Mattel's computers were less expensive than the VIC-20, and although the VIC-20 offered...
The Acorn Electron is a budget version of the BBC Micro educational/home computer made by Acorn Computers Ltd. It has 32 kilobytes of RAM, and its ROM includes BBC BASIC v2 along with its operating system. The Electron was able to save and load programs onto audio cassette via a supplied converter cable that connected it to any standard tape recorder that had the correct sockets. It was capable of basic graphics, and could display onto either a television set, a colour (RGB) monitor or a...
The original Apple Computer, also known retroactively as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a personal computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976. They were designed and hand-built by Steve Wozniak. Wozniak's friend Steve Jobs had the idea of selling the computer. The Apple I was Apple's first product, and to finance its creation, Jobs sold his only means of transportation, a VW Microbus and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator for $500. It was demonstrated in July 1976 at...
The BBC Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, was a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. Designed with an emphasis on education, it was notable for its ruggedness, expandability and the quality of its operating system. After the Literacy Project's call for bids for a computer to accompany the TV programs and literature, Acorn won the contract...
The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home/personal computer produced in 1977 by Commodore International. A top-seller in the Canadian and United States educational markets, it was Commodore's first full-featured computer, and formed the basis for their entire 8-bit product line. In the 1970s Commodore was one of many electronics companies selling calculators designed around Dallas-based Texas Instruments (TI) CPU chips. However, in 1975 TI increased the price of these...
The Lisa is a personal computer designed by Apple Computer, Inc. during the early 1980s. It was the first personal computer to offer a graphical user interface in an inexpensive machine aimed at individual business users. Development of the Lisa began in 1978[1] as a powerful personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) targeted toward business customers. In 1982, Steve Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project, so he joined the Macintosh project instead. The Macintosh is not a direct...
he Commodore 65 (also known as the C64DX, not to be confused with the Commodore SX-64 portable unit) was a prototype computer created by Fred Bowen and others at Commodore Business Machines (CBM) (part of Commodore International) in 1990–1991. The project was cancelled by CEO Irving Gould. The C65 was an improved version of the Commodore 64, and it was meant to be backwards-compatible with the older computer, while still providing a number of advanced features close to those of the Amiga. It...
The GX4000 was Amstrad's short-lived attempt to enter the games console market. The console was released in Europe in 1990 and was an upgraded design based on the then still-popular CPC technology. The GX4000 shared hardware architecture with Amstrad's CPC Plus computer line, which were released concurrently, this allowed the system to be compatible with the majority of CPC Plus software. The GX4000 was both Amstrad's first and only attempt at entering the console market. Although offering...
The Sharp MZ is a series of personal computers sold in Japan and Europe (particularly Germany and Great Britain) by Sharp beginning in 1978. Although commonly believed to stand for "Microcomputer Z80", the term MZ actually has its roots in the MZ-40K, a home computer kit produced by Sharp in 1978 which was based on Fujitsu's 4-bit MB8843 processor and provided a simple hexadecimal keypad for input. This was soon followed by the MZ-80K, K2, C, and K2E, all of which were based on 8-bit...
The SuperGrafx (スーパーグラフィックス?) is a video game console by NEC. It is an upgraded version of the PC Engine (known as the TurboGrafx-16 in North America), released exclusively in Japan, primarily in response to the Super Famicom (Super Nintendo Entertainment System outside of Japan) from Nintendo. Originally announced as the PC Engine 2, the machine was purported to be a true 16-bit system with improved graphics and audio capabilities over the original PC Engine. Expected to...
The Coleco Adam is a home computer released in 1983 by American toy manufacturer Coleco. It was an attempt to follow on the success of the company's ColecoVision video game console. The Adam was not very successful, partly because of early production problems. Coleco announced the Adam in June 1983 at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show (CES) and executives predicted sales of 500,000 by Christmas 1983. From the time of the computer's introduction to the time of its shipment, the price...
The Epoch Cassette Vision (カセットビジョン Kasetto Bijon?) was a video game console made by Epoch and released in Japan on July 30, 1981. The console used cartridges and it has the distinction of being the first successful programmable console video game system to be made in Japan. The system retailed for 13,500 yen, with games going for 4,000. It is believed, though not confirmed, that Sega and/or SNK made games for the Cassette Vision. Its graphics were less refined than the Atari...
The Magnavox Odyssey², known in Europe as the Philips Videopac G7000, in Brazil as the Philips Odyssey, in the United States as the Magnavox Odyssey² and the Philips Odyssey², and also by many other names, is a video game console released in 1978. In the early 1970s, Magnavox was an innovator in the home video game industry. They succeeded in bringing the first home video game system to market, the Odyssey, which was quickly followed by a number of later models, each with a few technological...
The Apple III (often rendered as Apple ///) is a business-oriented personal computer produced and released by Apple Computer that was intended as the successor to the Apple II series, but largely considered a failure in the market. Development work on the Apple III started in late 1978 under the guidance of Dr. Wendell Sander. The machine was first announced and released on May 19, 1980, but due to serious stability issues that required a design overhaul and a recall of existing machines, it...
For students in any field, but especially math and sciences, the Casio CFX-9850GC PLUS graphing calculator is a problem-solving tool with over 900 features for storing, graphing, and analysis. You can execute evaluation tables on a split screen (which allows you to trace the graph and scroll table values simultaneously) to display graphs and tables. With a long list of features, you can master list-based, one- and two-variable statistical calculations, a variety of regressions, statistics,...
The Neo Geo Pocket is a monochrome handheld video game console released by SNK. It was the company's first handheld system and is part of the Neo Geo family. It debuted in Japan in late 1998, however never saw a western release, being exclusive to Japan and smaller Asian markets such as Hong Kong. The Neo Geo Pocket is considered to be an unsuccessful console. Lower than expected sales resulted in its discontinuation in 1999,[1] and was immediately succeeded by the Neo Geo Pocket Color, a full...
Oric was the name used by Tangerine Computer Systems for a series of home computers, including the original Oric-1, its successor the Oric Atmos and the later Oric Stratos/IQ164 and Oric Telestrat models. With the success of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, Tangerine's backers had suggested a home computer and Tangerine formed Oric Products International Ltd to develop and release the Oric-1 in 1983. Further computers in the Oric range were released through to 1987 with Eastern European clones being...
The Pandora is a handheld game console designed to take advantage of existing open source software and to be a target for homebrew development. It is developed by OpenPandora, which is made up of former distributors and community members of the GP32 and GP2X handhelds. When announcing the system, the designers of Pandora stated that it would be more powerful than any handheld video game console that had yet existed. It includes several features that no handheld game consoles have previously...
The Dragon 32 and Dragon 64 are home computers that were built in the 1980s. The Dragons are very similar to the TRS-80 Color Computer (CoCo), and were produced for the European market by Dragon Data, Ltd., in Port Talbot, Wales, and for the US market by Tano of New Orleans, Louisiana. The model numbers reflect the primary difference between the two machines, which have 32 and 64 kilobytes of RAM, respectively. In the early 1980s, the British home computer market was booming. New machines were...
WonderSwan (ワンダースワン Wandāsuwan?) was a line of handheld game consoles produced in Japan by Bandai between 1999 and 2003. It was developed by the late Gunpei Yokoi's company Koto and Bandai. The WonderSwan was made to compete with the Neo Geo Pocket Color and the market leader Nintendo's Game Boy Color (even though the developer for the WonderSwan, Gunpei Yokoi, developed the original Nintendo Game Boy). The original WonderSwan was later replaced by the WonderSwan Color; although...
The Sinclair QL (for Quantum Leap), was a personal computer launched by Sinclair Research in 1984, as the successor to the Sinclair ZX Spectrum. The QL, based on the Motorola 68008 microprocessor, was aimed at the hobbyist and small business markets, but failed to achieve commercial success. The QL was the first mass-market personal computer based on the Motorola 68000-series processor family. Rushed into production, the QL beat the Apple Macintosh by a month, and the Atari ST by a year. While...
The Sega Pico, also known as Kids Computer Pico (キッズコンピューター・ピコ Kizzu Konpyūtā Piko?), is an electronic toy by Sega. The aim of creating the Pico was to get more young children (specifically, ages 2–8) to use video game systems. The Pico was the first Sega-branded console to carry an officially licensed game from former competitor Nintendo. The Pico was released in 1993 in Japan and 1994 in North America and Europe. In Japan, the system was a huge success and games...
Launched with the Sega Dreamcast in 1998, the Sega Visual Memory System (VMS) was a combination memory card/standalone game console. Designed to Serve as an auxiliary display unit, the Sega VMS contained it's own CPU, flash memory, batteries, and is capable of running games/applications when not attached to the Sega Dreamcast. Browsing the CollectionThere are 63 images for the Sega Visual Memory System, primarily games with a small number of applications and multimedia.To browse the collection...
WonderSwan (ワンダースワン Wandāsuwan?) was a line of handheld game consoles produced in Japan by Bandai between 1999 and 2003. It was developed by the late Gunpei Yokoi's company Koto and Bandai. The WonderSwan was made to compete with the Neo Geo Pocket Color and the market leader Nintendo's Game Boy Color (even though the developer for the WonderSwan, Gunpei Yokoi, developed the original Nintendo Game Boy). The original WonderSwan was later replaced by the WonderSwan Color; although...
The Astrocade is an second generation video game console and simple computer system designed by a team at Midway, the videogame division of Bally. It was marketed only for a limited time before Bally decided to exit the market. The rights were later picked up by a third-party company, who re-released it and sold it until around 1983. The Astrocade is particularly notable for its very powerful graphics capabilities for the time of release, and for the difficulty in accessing those capabilities....
The TRS-80 Model 100 was an early portable computer introduced in 1983. It was one of the first notebook-style computers, featuring a keyboard and liquid crystal display, battery powered, in a package roughly the size and shape of notepad or large book. It was made by Kyocera, and originally sold in Japan as the Kyotronic 85. Although a slow seller for Kyocera, the rights to the machine were purchased by Tandy Corporation, and the computer was sold through Radio Shack stores in the United...
The Super Control Station (スーパーコントロール・ステーション) SF-7000 is an add-on to the SC-3000 home computer, manufactured by Sega. It debuted in 1984 for the asking price of ¥79,800. The SF-7000 allows the user to run software off 3-inch floppy disks, as well as adding a further 64kB of RAM, 8kB of ROM, a Centronics parallel port and an RS-232 serial port. It is an extremely rare and very expensive item, and because it relied on the 3-inch floppy disk standard rather than...
The Commodore MAX Machine, also known as Ultimax in the United States and VC-10 in Germany, was a home computer designed and sold by Commodore International in Japan, beginning in early 1982, a predecessor to the popular Commodore 64. The Commodore 64 manual mentions the machine by name, suggesting that Commodore intended to sell the machine internationally; however, it is unclear whether the machine was ever actually sold outside of Japan. It is considered a rarity. Software was loaded from...
The Camputers Lynx was an 8-bit computer that experienced a shorter-than-most life in the home computer marketplace, mostly in the UK and Europe. Camputers released the Lynx 48k in March of 1983, a competitor to the ZX Spectrum. Powered with Z80A CPU, the computer was quickly repackaged as a 96k version in September of 1983, with current 48k owners required to send their machines in for a mechanical upgrade. A later 128k version was released in December of 1983. John Shireff designed the...
Aquarius is a home computer designed by Radofin and released by Mattel in 1983. It features a Zilog Z80 microprocessor, a rubber chiclet keyboard, 4K of RAM, and a subset of Microsoft BASIC in ROM. It connects to a television set and uses a cassette tape recorder for secondary data storage. A limited number of peripherals, such as a 40-column thermal printer, a 4-color printer/plotter, and a 300 baud modem, were released for the unit. Looking to compete in the standalone computer market, Mattel...
Kaypro Corporation, commonly called Kaypro, was an American home/personal computer manufacturer of the 1980s. The company was founded by Non-Linear Systems to develop computers to compete with the then-popular Osborne 1 portable microcomputer. Kaypro produced a line of rugged, portable CP/M-based computers sold with an extensive software bundle which supplanted its competitors and quickly became one of the top selling personal computer lines of the early 1980s. While exceptionally loyal to its...